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What is a template in cpp?

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Templates allow to create generic functions that admit any data type as parameters and return value without having to overload the function with all the possible data types. Until certain point they fulfill the functionality of a macro. Its prototype is any of the two following ones:

template function_declaration;
template function_declaration;

The only difference between both prototypes is the use of keyword class or typename, its use is indistinct since both expressions have exactly the same meaning and behave exactly the same way.

There are two kinds of templates:
1.function templates
2. class templates.

A function template behaves like a function except that the template can have arguments of many different types (see example). In other words, a function template represents a family of functions. For example, the C++ Standard Library contains the function template max(x, y) which returns either x or y, whichever is larger. max() could be defined like this, using the following template:

template
const T& max(const T& x, const T& y)
{
if(y < x)
return x;
return y;
}

A function template does not occupy space in memory. The actual definition of a function template is generated when the function is called with a specific data type. The function template does not save memory.

A class template provides a specification for generating classes based on parameters. Class templates are commonly used to implement containers. A class template is instantiated by passing a given set of types to it as template arguments. The C++ Standard Library contains many class templates, in particular the containers adapted from the Standard Template Library, such as vector.

undamental drawbacks to the use of templates:

  1. Historically, some compilers exhibited poor support for templates. So, the use of templates could decrease code portability.
  2. Many compilers lack clear instructions when they detect a template definition error. This can increase the effort of developing templates, and has prompted the development of Concepts for possible inclusion in a future C++ standard.
  3. Since the compiler generates additional code for each template type, indiscriminate use of templates can lead to code bloat, resulting in larger executables.
  4. Because a template by its nature exposes its implementation, injudicious use in large systems can lead to longer build times.
  5. It can be difficult to debug code that is developed using templates. Since the compiler replaces the templates, it becomes difficult for the debugger to locate the code at runtime.
  6. Templates of Templates (nesting) are not supported by all compilers, or might have a max nesting level.
  7. Templates are in the headers, which require a complete rebuild of all project pieces when changes are made.
  8. No information hiding. All code is exposed in the header file. No one library can solely contain the code.
  9. Virtual functions can cause excessive execution time bloat, and consume hundreds of kilobytes during run time space. (V Function Table).