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What is Data independency?

Data independency is defined as the capacity to change the conceptual schema without having to change the schema at the next higher level. We can define two types of data independence:

  1. Logical data independence.

  2. Physical data independence.

LDI is the capacity to change the conceptual schema without having to change external schemas or application programs.

PDI is the capacity to change the internal schema without having to change conceptual (or external) schemas.