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what is the purpose of for staement in java?

It is common to declare a variable and assign a value to it in the initialization part. The variable declared will be visible to the expression and update parts as well as to the statement block.

For example, the following for statement loops five times and each time prints the value of i. Note that the variable i is not visible anywhere else since it is declared within the for loop.

public class MainClass {

public static void main(String[] args) {
for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
System.out.println(i + " ");
}
}
}
The initialization part of the for statement is optional.

public class MainClass {

public static void main(String[] args) {
int j = 0;
for (; j < 3; j++) {
System.out.println(j);
}
// j is visible here
}

}